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Discovering a Wealth of Resources to Build a Solid Math Foundation
By Tina Spencer, M.S.
Updated September/October 2013
Originally Published November/December 2010
In general educational classrooms, many students with disabilities struggle to meet the math standards. The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) emphasizes the importance of having all students learn and value mathematics. To help students become better problem solvers and reason mathematically, the NCTM promotes the ConcreteRepresentationalAbstract (CRA) instructional sequence.
 CONCRETE: Student uses handson, physical (concrete) models or manipulatives to represent numbers and unknowns.
 REPRESENTATIONAL or semiconcrete: Student draws or uses pictorial representations of the models.
 ABSTRACT: Student uses numbers as abstract symbols of pictorial displays.
Example of CRA: Tilt or Balance the Equation

Provide students with a physical balance scale 

Have students draw circles representing the numbers in the math equation 

Write the numbers in the math equation 
Source: http://www.k8accesscenter.org/index.php/category/teachinglearning/instructionalstrategies/
Resources and Websites Recommended by the Virginia Department of Education (VDOE) to Support Virginia Math Teachers
Math Enhanced Scope and Sequence Sample Lesson Plans http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/sol/scope_sequence/mathematics_2009/index.php
Instructional Videos for Teachers
http://www.doe.virginia.gov/instruction/mathematics/resources/videos/index.shtml
Mathematics Vocabulary Word Wall Cards (K8)http://www.doe.virginia.gov/instruction/mathematics/resources/vocab_cards/index.shtml
Additional Teacher Resources and Websites
Math Word Walls
http://www.broward.k12.fl.us/STUDENTSUPPORT/ese/PDF/MathWordWall.pdf
Developed to promote NCTM Math standards and principles
http://illuminations.nctm.org/
Harvey Almarode, internationally known Math Professional Developer
http://harveyshomepage.com/Harveys_Homepage/Welcome.html
Interactive math lessons
http://www.aaamath.com/
National Library of Virtual Manipulatives
http://nlvm.usu.edu/en/nav/vlibrary.html
Discovery Education free lesson plans for K12
http://school.discoveryeducation.com/lessonplans/math.html
StudentFriendly Math Websites
A network of math lessons, practice activities, games, and a math dictionary
http://www.coolmath.com/
Developed to help students improve their math skills interactively
http://www.aplusmath.com/
Ask Dr. Math is a questionandanswer service for math students and their teachers. A searchable archive is available by level and topic.
http://mathforum.org/dr.math/
BrainBashers is a collection of brain teasers, puzzles, riddles, games, and optical illusions.
http://www.brainbashers.com/
The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, in cooperation with the National Action Council for Minorities in Engineering, Widmeyer Communications, and the Learning First Alliance, launched Figure This! to meet the rigors and demands of increasingly higherlevel concepts and approaches to problem solving in today’s math classes.
http://www.figurethis.org/index.html
© 2002 Pearson Education, Inc. Funbrain offers free games, parent and teacher resources, and a math quiz lab.
http://www.funbrain.com
The goal of this math website is to help elementary school (Grades 1 through 6) children boost their math problemsolving and criticalthinking skills. MathStories.com has over 15,000 online and printable NCTM compliant math word problems.
http://www.mathstories.com
The Math Forum is a research and educational enterprise of the Goodwin College of Professional Studies which includes K12 Math problems, puzzles, tips and tricks.
http://mathforum.org/k12/mathtips
A portal of free math sites for elementary students compiled by a teacher to be both fun and educational.
http://www.kidskonnect.com/subjectindex/17math/292mathsites.html